Ukuhlolwa kobaba kanye nokuhlolwa kobaba ngaphambi kokubeletha

Okuqukethwe

Konke mayelana nokuhlolwa kobaba

Izimo eziningana zingabonisa isithakazelo sokufakazela umzali phakathi kukababa nengane yakhe, ngakho-ke ukusetshenziswa kokuhlolwa kobaba. Kodwa eFrance, le ndlela ihlelwe ngokuqinile ngokomthetho. Ubani ongenza lokhu kuhlola? Kuziphi izimo? Kumaphi ama-laboratories? Ku-inthanethi ? Ingabe imiphumela ithembekile? Izimpendulo kuyo yonke imibuzo yakho mayelana nokuhlolwa kobaba. 

Ngokocwaningo lwaseBrithani olwenziwa ngo-2005 futhi lwanyatheliswa kuyi-Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ubaba oyedwa kwabangama-25 ngeke ubaba omzalayo wengane yakhe. Ngakho-ke obaba banesizathu sokuzibuza ukunemba kwesixhumanisi sebhayoloji okubahlanganisa nenzalo yabo. Amanye amacala (umama ongayedwa ofisa ukucela usizo lukababa ozala umntwana ukuze akhulise ingane, okucatshangwa ukuthi ubaba ofisa ukufakazela ukuthi akayena umnakekeli osemthethweni wengane) athethelela isidingo qinisekisa ngokwesayensi izibopho ze-filiation. Kodwa-ke, ukuhlolwa kobaba akuyona indlela okufanele ithathwe kalula ngoba kuyingxenye yenqubo yomthetho eqinile.  

Ukuhlolwa kukababa ukuze kutholwe noma kuqhutshwe isixhumanisi sabazali 

Ngakho-ke isetshenziselwa ukusungula noma ukuncintisana isixhumanisi sabazali phakathi kukababa osolwayo nengane yakhe. Ukuthungathwa kobaba bese kwenza kube nokwenzeka ukubusa ngemibandela yokusebenzisa igunya labazali, igalelo likababa ekondleni nasekufundiseni ingane, ukuqanjwa kwegama likayise. Ukuhlolwa kobaba nakho kungavumela ukuthola noma ukususa “imixhaso” yabantu owayenobudlelwane obuseduze nomama ngesikhathi sokukhulelwa kwengane. Okusho ukuthi impesheni yokudla ekhokhelwa ingane uyise engayazi i-filiation. Kulokhu, umama noma ingane (ngobuningi bayo) ingaba lapho kuvela khona lesi sicelo.

Okucatshangwa ukuthi ubaba ozalayo kumele ngabe uyavuma

Indlela ihambisana kahle ne izinqubo zomthetho. Ngokuqondile, ummeli (kamama noma ubaba) kufanele abambe Inkantolo Ephakeme. Ubaba osolwayo kumele abe evuma. Lokhu kubangela ukuthi a isitatimende esibhaliwe. Ngaphandle kwalolu hlaka, ukuhlolwa kobaba kuqinile ngokungemthetho. Qaphela: uma osolwa ngokuba ngubaba enqaba ukwenza isivivinyo ngaphandle kokuzithethelela, lokhu kungabhekwa njengokwamukelwa kobaba yijaji. Qaphela futhi: umthetho uyakwenqabela ukusetshenziswa kokuhlolwa ukuze kusungulwe noma kuphikisane ne-filiation esimweni sokuzala okusizwa ngemithi (MAP) nomuntu onikelayo wenkampani yangaphandle, njengoba kulokhu ukuhlanganiswa kofuzo akuhambisani nenhlangano esemthethweni.

Ukuhlolwa kwe-DNA ukuze kutholakale ubaba

Baba kucatshangwa, umama nengane kumele bahlolelwe iDNA, ngamanye amazwi bahlonzwe ngeminwe yabo yolibofuzo. E-France, lezi zivivinyo kufanele zenziwe ngaphakathi amalabhorethri agunyaziwe. Ngokuvamile, ochwepheshe bathatha amasampula amathe (aqoqwe ngokuhlikihla ingaphakathi lesihlathi). Ukuhlola kungenziwa futhi ngamasampula egazi. Ochwepheshe baqhathanisa izimpawu zofuzo (uhlobo “lwekhodi yebha”) lwabantu abathathu ukuze bathole noma cha ubaba. Indlela iwukuthi ethembekile ngaphezu kwama-99% futhi imiphumela yaziwa emahoreni ambalwa.

Ukuhlolwa kobaba be-inthanethi akukho emthethweni e-France

Ama-Laboratories Ngaphandle (ikakhulukazi e-Spain) bandisa inombolo yezinsizakalo zokuhlola ubaba ezizokwenziwa ngewebhu. Ngokushintshanisa ukuthumela amasampula e-DNA (amathe, izinwele, uzipho, isikhumba) ngeposi kanye nama-euro angamakhulu ambalwa (kusuka cishe kuma-euro angu-150), amasayithi athembisa imiphumela enokwethenjelwa kukho “konke ukuhlakanipha” . Lokhu kusho ukuthi izivivinyo zingenziwa ngaphandle kolwazi lwabantu abathintekayo! Lezi labhorethri ngokusobala azigunyazwanga umthetho waseFrance. Noma ngabe imiphumela yabo ibiqinisekile (futhi ayikho indlela yokuqinisekisa lokhu), abakwazanga ukusebenza njengobufakazi bokuqashelwa okusemthethweni kobuzali noma ukuphikiswa kwabo. Ukusetshenziswa kwabo ezinqubweni zomthetho kungase kubangele ngisho nabamangali! Noma kunjalo, uvivinyo olwengeziwe lwenziwa ngale ndlela, ikakhulukazi ngabesifazane noma amadoda afisa ukuthola ukwaziswa ngaphambi kokuqala inqubo ende yomthetho, noma abantu (umama, ubaba noma ingane) abalangazelela ukubamba iqiniso lesayensi eliphathelene nomndeni wabo. umlando. Ubufakazi balokhu kufuna iqiniso ngentshiseko, e-United States, ibhasi elithi “Ubani Uyihlo? Ukwenza izivivinyo zikababa ezicacile ngisho nasemigwaqweni yaseNew York. Kufanele kuqashelwe ukuthi ukuhlolwa kobaba okwenziwa ngaphandle kwemvume yabathintekayo kungase kube ngaphansi kwesigwebo sonyaka owodwa ejele noma inhlawulo yama-euro angu-15. Futhi lawo masiko angashaqa amasampula e-DNA. Ingasaphathwa yomthelela imiphumela yalezi zivivinyo, ezingalawulwa ngumthetho, engaba nawo ekulinganiseni kwemizwelo yabenzi bezicelo kanye nokuzinza kwesakhiwo somndeni ... 

Ukuhlolwa kukababa okhulelwe kusukela evikini lesi-9 lokukhulelwa? 

Amanye amalabhorethri akwamanye amazwe manje anikezela ngokuhlolwa kukababa ngaphambi kokubeletha okuzokwenziwa kusukela evikini lesi-9 lokukhulelwa. Kwenziwa ngokuthatha isampula legazi kumama, eliqukethe i-DNA yengane. Kubiza ngaphezu kwama-euro angu-1200 futhi akukho emthethweni naseFrance. Ukuhlolwa kofuzo okwenziwa ku-fetus kugunyazwe kuphela e-France uma kwenzeka kunqanyulwa ukukhulelwa. 

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